Increased yield and quality assurance in wheat cultivation
In the last few years there have been considerable yield increases for many agricultural cultures as a result of breading performances. For wheat these increases have remained below the general trend, however. Because in the last few decades breeding defined the quality and, above all, the improved resistance to disease as the aim of breeding. A positive side-effect of this breeding work aiming for plant health and environmental suitability is that wheat can now be cultivated in many locations with lower soil quality.
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At present ever more new wheat varieties are being licensed and are coming to market, resulting in a considerable, genetics-related growth in yields. This increased yield can be seen across the entire quality rang from E to C, but primarily in segments A and B. Almost all new varieties have very good leaf health and improved eyespot resistance, but improved root performance can often also be seen during dry stress. One problem with these new high-yield varieties lies in the increased resistance to ear fusarium. The farmer therefore has to consider which varieties to include in the cultivation. This corporate risk consideration or "safety management" should also be taken into account consciously according to the local conditions, sol processing, crop rotation, sowing date, use direction and yield expectations.
With regard to risk minimisation with simultaneously maximum yield expectations, certain wheat varieties have to be included optimally into the crop rotation. No matter whether the harvested product is to be used in your own farm or is to be sold as a market product. One example of this new variety type is tobak. Apart from a good powdery mildew resistance, it has a low susceptibility to yellow and brown rust. The fusarium susceptibility of the variety is high, however. This requires safety management. This can include: not growing tobak in mulch drilling after maize crop rotation. After rapeseed or sugar beet, with ploughing after grain as a previous crop, the very high yield potential of the variety can be exploited well and securely.
The yield formation, both over the planting density and over the corn or ear number makes the variety very reliable in terms of yield after early or even late sowing. The high individual ear yield also secures the yield even under dry conditions.
As a result of the good leaf health of the tobak variety, the fungicide strategy can be adjusted to the actual development of infections. Under some circumstances, treatments can be omitted or cheaper preparations may suffice. Depending on the progress of the vegetation infection, the focus of treatment should be on the T2 and, in particular, on the T3 segment. To hedge against risks, a final treatment in stage BBCH 61 to 63 (bloom) should be applied with certain fusarium effect and full quantity. The costs for all the fungicide applications for this variety are therefore not more than those for other varieties. Security against fusarium has to be achieved through crop rotation, soil processing and a targeted use of fungicide.
The genetically high yield of tobak can then be fully exploited. The corn quality of the harvested product can reach to quality segment A with correspondingly high N supply. The variety qualities of tobak discussed here as an example: very high yields, leaf health, variable in terms of location and sowing time, susceptibility to fusarium infections, will still be with us for some time with the newer high-yield varieties. A general rejection of these varieties means a loss of yield. The comparable check in the LSVs should be performed.
In the strongly maize-based crop rotations, varieties such as Anapolis can be cultivated. The variety has good suitability for late sowing, has short growth, is robust, has an excellent leaf health and a low susceptibility to ear fusarium. The farmer is well -advised not to avoid these "fusarium-resistant" varieties too easily. A flat mulch work after the maize harvest, with high levels of harvest residue on the surface of the field, represents an enormous risk potential for fusarium infections. Studies from the AGRAVIS grain record show that even varieties with a low susceptibility to ear fusarium can have highly-damaging cases. In the event of such a crop rotation structure, a suitable fungicide measure has to be applied to the ears in order to maintain the quality and health of the harvested product.